Written materials

This section of the website details reading and other literature that may be of interest, either on a general level or within your own country. Some of the references are specifically about children who come from families where there are alcohol problems, but some is on a more general level about families who have to deal with the problem alcohol use of a relative - we include some of these references for general interest. We also suggest that you visit your national website or key organisations within your country or the EU if you require more specific or detailed information. For information on other resources, particularly websites, go to the further resources page of this website.

At the moment there is a lot of information on this page but we hope to review this page soon so that it is easier to navigate around.

ENCARE specific resources

The ENCARE Toolkit and the proceedings from the May 2004 symposium are now available through this webiste. Details of the ENCARE publication will be given here as soon as they become available.

These are listed by topic for some things, and then under each member country, and then by topic area, for other things.

Topic specific

Ways of thinking about the problem

Babor T et al. (2003) Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity, Research and Public Policy. Oxford University Press, New York.

Barr A. (1998) Drink: A social history. London: Pimlico.

Davies JB. (1997) The Myth of Addiction. The Netherlands: Harwood Academic.

Heather N, Robertson I. (1997) Problem Drinking. 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Houghton E, Roche AM. (Eds)(2001) Learning About Drinking. USA: Taylor & Francis.

Jellinek E. (1960) The Disease Concept of Alcoholism. New Jersey: Hillhouse.

McNeill A (1998) Alcohol Problem in the Family: A report to the European Union. Eurocare

Orford J. Excessive Appetites: A Psychological View of Addictions. 2 nd edn. Chichester: Wiley; 2001.

Velleman R, Templeton L. (2004) Alcohol Use and Misuse. in Ewles, L. (Ed.) Key Topics in Public Health. Oxford; Elsevier, Chapter 10, in press.

Velleman R, Copello A, Maslin J. (1998) Living with Drink: Women who live with problem drinkers. London: Longman.

Whitfield CL (1992) Codependence addictions and related disorders. In Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB & Lengrod JG (Eds)(1992) Substance abuse: a comprehensive textbook. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins (2nd Edition).

Wyse D (Ed) (2004) Childhood Studies: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing.

Working with Children

Robinson W & Dunne M (1999) Alcohol, Child Care and Parenting: A Handbook for Practitioners. NSPCC. There are sections on working with children, working with parents and working with professionals, including information, guidelines, activities, exercises etc.

Heegaard M (1993) When a Family is in Trouble. USA; Woodland Press. This book gives parents, counsellors and other professionals help in working with children aged 6-12 years who live in a family where a parent has a problem with alcohol (or drugs). The book has been illustrated by children and is designed so they can write and draw in it alongside their work with a professional or other caring person.

Phillips R (2004)(Ed) Children exposed to parental substance misuse: implications for family placement. London; BAAF (British Association for Adoption and Fostering).

Hetherington R, Baistow K, Katz I, Mesie J & Trowell J (2003) The childrne of parents with mental illness: learning from inter-country comparisons. Chichester Wiley.

Domestic violence

Babor T et al. (2003) Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity, Research and Public Policy. Oxford University Press, New York. (Chapter 6 looks at violence and alcohol)

Coolen-Perednia, C., Koninckx, M., Bijttebier, P., Hulpverlening aan kinderen van alcoholisten – Gezinnen onder invloed – invloedrijke gezinnen, 2002, VAD, Brussels, p. 9

Leonard, K.E., Eiden, D.r., Wong, M., Zucker, R., Puttler, L., Fitzgerald, H., Hussong, A., Chassin, L. & Muldar, P. (2000). Developmental perspectives on risk and vulnerability in alcoholic families. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research , 24, 2 , 238-240.

O'Farrell, T.J. & Murhpy, C.M. (1995). Marital violence before and after alcoholism treatment. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology , 63, 256-262.

Sher, K.J. (1991). Children of alcoholics. A critical appraisal of theory and research. Chicago, The university of Chicago Press.

Sher K.J. (1993). Children of alcoholics and the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism: a biopsychosocial perspective. In: Bear, J., Marlatt, G. & McMahon, R. (ed.). Addictive behaviors across the life span. Prevention, treatment and policy issues. (1993). Sage Publications.

Zucker, R.A., Ellis, D.A., Bingham, C.R. & Fitzgerald, H.E. (1996). The development of alcoholic subtypes: Risk variation among alcoholic families during early childhood years. Alcohol Health & Research World, 20, 46-54.

Christensen E (1995) Families in distress, the development of children growing up with alcohol and violence. Artic Medical Research 54 Supplement 1; 53-60.

Resilience

Velleman R & Templeton L (2004) Reaching Out – Promoting Resilience in substance misusing families. In Evans D, Harbin F & Murphy M (Eds) (2004) Secret Lives: Understanding and working with children who live with substance misuse. Russell House Publishers.

Glantz MD & Johnson JL (Eds) (1999) Resilience and Development: Positive Life Adaptations. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.

Velleman R & Orford J (1999) Risk and Resilience: Adults who were the Children of Problem Drinkers . London, Harwood.

Rutter M (1987) Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 57(3); 316-331.

Werner E (1993) Risk, resilience and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai Longitudinal Study. Development and Psychopathology 5; 503-515.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

A recent issue of the journal Addictoin Biology was dedicated to this topic. Volume 9. Number 2. June 2004.

Country specific

Austria

These publications are all in German and have not been sub-divided by topic.

Beiglböck, W., Feselmayer, S., Frank, H. (1997): Kinder von Suchtkranken – das unterschätzte Risiko. In: Pulverich, G., (Hrsg.): Psychologie und Therapie bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. 5.

Brixener Tage für Psychologen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Psychologenverbände (ADP), 45-52. Deutscher Psychologen Verlag

Frank, H., Puhm, A., Bauer, W., Mader, R. (1998): Alkoholerwartungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen zwischen 11 und 18 Jahren an Wiener Schulen (repräsentative Stichprobe): Design des Projekts und erste Ergebnisse. In: Pelikan, J.M., Noack, R.H., Pfeiffer, K.P. (Hrsg.): Dokumentation und Berichterstattung über Gesundheit als Aufgabe der Gesundheitsförderung. Wien: Facultas Verlag

Frank, H., Puhm, A., Bauer, W., Mader, R. (1999): Alkohol-bezogene Erwartungen, Einstellungen und Alkoholkonsum bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen. Wiener Zeitschrift für Suchtforschung 22/4: 1-9

Frank, H. (2002): Risikokinder. In: Wiener Zeitschrift für Suchtforschung, 1/2: 83-92

Frank, H., Puhm, A., Bauer, W., Schmidt, E., Mader, R.: Zusammenhänge physiologischer und psychologischer (Alkoholreaktibilität, evozierte Potentiale/P300, alkoholbezogene Erwartungen, Sensation Seeking) Alkoholismusmarker mit familiärem Risiko und familiärem Stress. In Vorbereitung

Frank, H., Puhm, A., Bauer, W., Schmidt, E.: Merkmale des Alkoholkonsums bei Kindern und Jugendlichen an Wiener Schulen (1) Quantität, Frequenz, Akzeptanz des Alkoholkonsums sowie Konsum als Sorgenbrecher, sozialer Konsum: Zusammenhänge mit Alter, Geschlecht, kulturellem Faktor, familiärem Alkoholkonsum. In Vorbereitung

Frank, H., Puhm, A., Bauer, W., Schmidt, E.: Merkmale des Alkoholkonsums bei Kindern und Jugendlichen an Wiener Schulen (2) Quantität, Frequenz, Akzeptanz des Alkoholkonsums sowie Konsum als Sorgenbrecher, sozialer Konsum: Zusammenhänge mit familiärem Einkommen und Schultyp. In Vorbereitung

Frank, H., Puhm, A., Bauer, W., Schmidt, E.: Merkmale des Alkoholkonsums bei Kindern und Jugendlichen an Wiener Schulen (3) Trinksituationen, Rausch versus Abstinenz: Zusammenhänge mit familiärem Stress. In Vorbereitung

Puhm, A. (1996): Auswirkungen des mütterlichen Alkoholismus auf die Familienstrukturen. Wien: Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit

Puhm, A. (2001): Untersuchung über den kindperzipierten Erziehungsstil in Familien mit unterschiedlicher familiärer Alkoholbelastung. Wien: Unveröffentlichte Dissertation

Puhm, A., (2003): Erziehungsstile in Familien mit unterschiedlicher elterlicher Alkoholbelastung. In: Wiener Zeitschrift für Suchtforschung, 26, 3/4, 63-67

Denmark

Christensen E (1995) My Parent is an Alcoholic: A Study of 32 children and their parents. Danish National Institute of Social Research.

Christensen E (2000) Born i familier med alkoholmisbrug – med focus pa behandlerens rolle. Psykologisk Paedagogisk Radgivning 37 argang Nr. 3 juli 2000 p281-291.

Christensen E (1999) Born i familier med alkoholmisbrug. I Dencik L & Schultz Jorgensen P (red). Born og familie i det postmoderne samfund. Kobenhavn: Hans Reitzels Forlag. 1999.

Christensen E (1998) Childhood in a Family where one or both parents being alcoholics. Journal of Child Centred Practice 5(2); 49-60.

Christensen E (1997) Aspects of a Preventive Approach to support children of alcoholics. Child Abuse Review 6; 24-34.

Christensen E (1995) Families in distress, the development of children growing up with alcohol and violence. Artic Medical Research 54 Supplement 1; 53-60.

Christensen E (1995) Born skal hjaelpes til at baere byrderne. I Sundhedsstyrelsen: De loyale ofre. Rapport fra en konference om born i familier med alcohol og stofproblemer.

Christensen E (1995) Alkoholbehandling – ogsa et tilbund til bornene. Klinisk Sygepleje. Nr. 1; 14-19.

Christensen E (1994) Nar mor eller far drikker. Interview med born og foraeldre i familier med alkoholmisbrug. Socialforskningsinstituttet 94:2.

Finland

The Fragile Childhood website gives details of publications and other materials in this area that are available in the Finnish language.

Germany

The German ENCARE website has a complete list of the German literature.

the Netherlands

General:

Children of parents with psychological problems. Factsheet 2 produced by the Trimbos Institute.

Extent of the problem

Bongers IMB (1998) Problem drinking among the general population: a public health issue? Rotterdam, Instituut voor Verslavingsonderzoek.

Cuijpers P, Langendoen Y & Bijl RV (1999) Psychiatric disorders in adult children of problem drinkers: prevalence, first onset and comparison with other risk factors. Addiction 94(10); 1489-1498.

Impact of alcohol misuse on children:

Riper H & Conijn B (2003) Evaluatieverslag pilot Drankjewel.nl [Evaluation report pilot Drankjewel.nl]. Utrecht, The Netherlands, Trimbos-institute.

Bijl RV, Cuijpers P & Smit F (2002) Psychiatric disorders in adult children of parents with a history of psychopathology. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology 37;7-12.

Bool M (2002) Casemanagement voor kinderen van verslaafde ouders. Een literatuurverkenning gevold door een inventarisatie van casemenagement praktijken in Nederland. [Case-management for children with an addicted parent. A literature study followed by an inventory of case-management practises in the Netherlands] Utrecht, The Netherlands, GGZ Nederland.

Cuijpers P & Smit F (2001) Assessing parental alcoholism: a comparison of the family history research diagnostic criteria versus single-question method. Addictive Behaviors 26; 741-748.

The work of Reinout Weirs

Wiers R W et al. (2003) How to change implicit drug-related cognitions in prevention: a transdisciplinary integration of findings from experimental psychopathology, social cognition, memory and experimental learning psychology. To be published in Substance Use and Misuse: Special Issue on Transdisciplinary Drug Abuse Prevention Research

Wiers R W & Kummeling R H C (2003) An experimental test of an alcohol expectancy challenge in mixed gender groups of young heavy drinkers. Addictive Behaviours (in press).

Wiers R W et al. (2003) Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2), 186-197.

Wiers R W et al. (2002) Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 26(1), 129-137.

Wiers R W et al. (2002) Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions in heavy and light drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111(4), 648-658.

Wiers R W et al. (2000) A confirmatory analysis of the hierarchical structure of positive and negative dose-related alcohol expectancies in alcoholics and the associations with family history of alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61, 177-186.

Wiers R W, Sergeant J A & Gunning W B (2000) The assessment of alcohol expectancies in school children: measurement or modification. Addiction 95(5), 737-746.

Wiers R W, Gunning W B & Sergeant J A (1998) Is a mild deficit in executive functions in boys related to childhood ADHD or to parental multigenerational alcoholism? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 26(6), 415-430.

Wiers R W , Gunning W B & Sergeant J A (1998) Do young children of alcoholics hold more positive or negative alcohol-related expectancies than controls? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 22(8), 1855-1863.

Wiers R W et al. (1997) High and low dose alcohol-related expectancies and the differential associations with drinking in male and female adolescents and young adults. Addiction 92(7), 871-888.

Ways of working with children and families:

Vos M, Berg K & van Sambeek D (2002) Draaiboek pubergroep KOPP: preventief groepsaanbod voor pubers (13-15 jaar) van ouders met psychische of verslavingsproblemen. Utrecht, The Netherlands; Trimbos Instituut.

van den Boer S, van Erp R & van der Zanden R (2002) Draaiboek Doe-praatgroep KOPP: preventief groepsaanbod voor kindern (8-12 jaar) van ouders met psychische of verslavingsproblemen. Utrecht, The Netherlands; Trimbos Instituut.

Cuijpers P & Bolier L (2001) Drankjewel: enn zelfhulpgids voor volwassen kindern van probleemdrinkers. Utrecht, The Netherlands; Trimbos Instituut.

Case management:

Bool M (2003) Handreiking casemanagement voor kindern van verslaafde ouders. Utrecht, The Netherlands; GGZ Nederland.

Portugal

These publications are all in Portuguese and have not been sub-divided by topic.

Palminha, J.Martins e col. – Os filhos dos Toxicodependentes. Novo grupo de risco bio-psico-social. Grande Prémio Bial de Medicina 1992 (Prémio de Medicina Clínica), Porto, 1993.

Roberto, C.F.; Marques, R. – Preditores do Consumo de Álcool em Adolescentes. Tese de Licenciatura em Psicologia Clínica. Instituto de Ciências da Saúde – Sul, 2001.

Rodrigues, M.E.; Leite, M.; Fernandes, S. – Expectativas/Crenças dos Adolescentes e Jovens Adultos face ao consumo de Álcool. Tese de Licenciatura em Enfermagem na Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Viseu, 2001.

Moleiro, A.; Almeida, A. - “Bebo, logo existo”. O consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas em idade jovem . Tese de licenciatura em Sociologia na Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, 2001.

Carmona, M.F. – “Prevenção Primária do Alcoolismo nas Crianças e Adolescentes – uma abordagem genérica”. Trabalho no âmbito do “Módulo de Prevenção de Toxicodependências” do Mestrado em Epidemiologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Lisboa, 2000.

CRAN: “ As crianças, quando os pais bebem. Estudo em crianças do ensino básico”

Domingos Neto, Vieira da Silva, Ana, “O que deve saber sobre Bebidas Alcoólicas”, Adaptação: O álcool e o alcoolismo: Maria Lucília Mercês de Melo; Bebidas alcoólicas: Augusto Pinto, Maria Henriqueta Frazão, João Breda, Ana Feijão; Outras referências: Paulo Vitória, ACP, OMS, DSM IV, PRESALIS, CTT; Composição gráfica: Helena Favila

Moreira, Rui, Tese de Mestrado com o t í tulo "As crian ç as quando os pais bebem. Estudo em crian ç as do ensino b á sico"

Gonçalves, Graça, "O Amigo Secreto" , 2003, 1ª edição (patrocínio do IDT), já lançado em Lisboa

Pereira Miguel J., A decisão em medicina preventiva, Reflexões a partir das doenças ateroscleróticas, lição de síntese . Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Educação Médica. Lisboa, 1994

Manual “Álcool e Problemas Ligados ao Álcool em Portugal” (disponibilizado em pdf no site do CRAS e do Ministério da Saúde).

Leaflets :

A. G.-História Humorística do Alcoolismo, Direitos das Crianças e o Álcool (2002) (p ublished by the Alcohology Centre Ricardo Pampuri: Casa de Saúde S. João de Deus Funchal)

Other leaflets published in partnership with other Alcohology Centres of S. João de Deus:

Gameiro, Aires – Mais Vale Viver um Projecto que ser um Robot, Casa de Saúde S. Miguel Saúde S. Miguel 2000 Ponta Delgada;

A. G.- História Humorística do Alcoolismo –Casa de Saúde S. João de Deus, Funchal;

Centro de Alcoologia da Casa de Saúde S. Rafael-Histórias de Crianças como eu e tu –CSSR, Angra;

Clínica de Dependências da Casa de Saúde S. Miguel-Mais Vale Não Arriscar do que Aires Gameiro;

Lamentar –Ed. CSSM –1999;

Mais Vale Prevenir que Remediar –(A.G.) Ed. CSSM, Ponta Delgada 1999;

Direitos das Crianças e o Álcool –Ed. CSSJD, Funchal –2002;

Plano de Acção contra o Alcoolismo Texto Oficial. –Ed. Clínica S. João de Deus, Ponta Delgada -03/2001;

O seu marido bebe, 2ª ed. CSSM Ponta Delgada –1999.

Also in partnership with other Alcohology Centres of S. João de Deus, Alcohology Centre Ricardo Pampuri: Casa de Saúde S. João de Deus Funchal has participated in publishing other books such as:

Afonso de Deus, Alberto – O Alcoolismo: uma forma de desistência da vida – ISPA, Lisboa, 2002;

Filipe, Nuno – Alcoolismo e Toxicodependência. –Ed. Hospitalidade – 1998;

Gameiro, Aires – Alcoolismo nos Açores e Madeira. Padrões de consumo em 1999 e 2000. Linhas de Prevenção. – Ed. Hospitalidade –2000;

Álcool, alcoolismo e drogodependência –Recuperação através da reestruturação interrelacional e sistémica. –Ed. Revista Hospitalidade –1983;

Porquê o Alcoolismo. –Ed. Centro de Recuperação Novo Rumo e Soc. Anti-Alcoólica Portuguesa –1977;

Hábitos de Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas em Portugal 1985, 1991, 1997. –Ed. Hospitalidade – 1998;

Alcoolismo e toxicodependência. –Ed. Hospitalidade –1998;

Depender do Álcool 3ª edição. –Ed. O Arauto –1979;

Liberdade de Beber e de Não Beber. –Ed. Hospitalidade –1987;

Alcoolismo na Interacção, 1987.Sistémica – Aspectos Sociais da Alcooldependência. –Ed. Hospitalidade –1980;

A História do Quim. –Ed. Salesianas, Porto –1985;

Pessoas Dependentes, 1998. –Ed. Caritas e Ed. Hospitalidade.

The study “Alcoolismo nos Açores e Madeira”, by Aires Gameiro, shows the Consumption Paterns in 1999 and 2000, for the Islands of Madeira and Açores.

Another study, “Alcoolismo nos Açores”- alguns elementos para a sua caracterização, by Secretaria Regional da Saúde e Segurança Social – Direcção Regional da Segurança Social, developed in 1990 by Dr. Nélio Martins Lourenço aims to establish a diagnosis of the alcohol related problems in Açores.

Another study is “Consumos de bebidas alcoólicas na ilha Terceira”, developed between May and July 2003, by Jorge M. P. Ávila, and presents a computation on alcohol consumption in Açores. It was not yet published and is being analised by the state organism Direcção Regional da Saúde.

Ministério da Saúde. Portugal. Direcção-Geral da Saúde. O Plano Nacional de Saúde. Orientações estratégicas para 2003, Lisboa, 2003 .

Ministério da Saúde. Portugal. Direcção-Geral da Saúde. Ganhos de Saúde em Portugal . Relatório do Director Geral e Alto Comissário da Saúde de 2001. Lisboa, 2002.

Pádua Fernando de e colaboradores. Promoção da saúde e prevenção das doenças não transmissíveis . CINDI Portugal 3º Quinquénio? (1998-2002?), Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Preventiva, Lisboa, 1999.

Pádua Fernando de; Murjal L, Machado, A situação de saúde de Portugal em relação aos outros países europeus (EU 15) . Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Preventiva, Lisboa, 2002.

Spain

Publications relating to Program Alfil

Gual A & Diaz R (2001) Epidemiological results from the Alfil Program in Spain. Paper to the 1 st European workshop on families of people with alcohol or mental health problems, Sweden, August 2001.

Diaz R & Gual A (2001) Evaluation of psycho-educational sessions for children of alcoholics from the Alfil Program in Spain. Paper to the 1 st European workshop on families of people with alcohol or mental health problems, Sweden, August 2001.

Gual A & Diaz R (2001) Children of alcoholics: risk factors and preventive strategies. Working paper for the WHO European Ministerial Conference on Young People and Alcohol. Stockholm, February 2001.

Diaz R & Gual A (2001) Adolescents living with parental alcoholism. Alcoscope: International review of alcoholism management 4(2), 9-15.

Diaz R (2000) Psychophysiological alterations in subjects at high risk for alcoholism development. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Barcelona.

Gual A & Diaz R (1999) Alcoholism Prevention in children of alcoholics. Youth, Family, Community and Alcohol Problems – European symposium on community action to prevent alcohol problems. European network on local alcohol prevention, research and evaluation (ENLAPRE), Portugal, November 1999.

A more detailed list of Spanish research and practice with children of alcoholics, along with details of some self-help and other preventive materials from Spain (specific to children in families where there are alcohol problems) is available by clicking here (pdf file).

Sweden

This first group of publications relates to research conducted in Sweden into Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

Strömland K. Ocular abnormalities in the fetal alcohol syndrome. Acta Ophthalmol 1985;63, Suppl 171

Strömland K. Contribution of ocular examination to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome in mentally retarded children. J Ment Def Res 1990; 34:429-435

Strömland K, Pinazo-Duran MD. Optic nerve hypoplasia, comparative effects in children and rats exposed to alcohol during pregnancy. Teratology 1994;50:100-111

Strömland K, Hellström A. Fetal alcohol syndrome - An ophthalmological and socio-educational prospective study. Pediatrics 1996;97:845-850

Guerri C, Riley E, Strömland K. Commentary on the recommendations of the Royal College of obstetricians and gynecologists concerning alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Alcohol & Alcoholism 1999;34:497-501.

Strömland K. Fetalt alkoholsyndrom – onödigt lidande som inte blivit ovanligare. (Månedens nordiske artikkel). Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2001;121:436-8.

Strömland K, Pinazo-Durán MD, Ophthalmic involvement in the fetal alcohol syndrome: Clinical and animal model studies. Invited review. Alcohol & Alcoholism 2002;37:2-8

Strömland K. Fetal alcohol syndrome – a birth defect recognized worldwide. Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review. Invited review. In press 2004

Strömland K. Visual impairment and ocular abnormalities in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Invited review. In press 2004

United Kingdom

A literature review review, undertaken by Sarah Gorin at the NSPCC, in collaboration with the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and the National Children's Bureau, has been published in the UK in 2004. Entitled 'Understanding what children say' it looks at children's experiences of domestic violence, parental substance misuse and parental health problems. Whilst it is a UK focused review, many of the themes to emerge in the report will resonate across Europe. For further details visit the NSPCC or Joseph Rowntree websites.

The work of the Alcohol, Drugs and the Family Research Group - this contains a selection of work from this group; both general research into the impact of alcohol and drug problems on the family, but also references that are more specific to children.

Velleman R, Templeton L. (2003) Alcohol, Drugs and the Family: Results from a Long-Running Research Programme within the UK. European Addiction Research 9(3), 103-112. http://www.content.karger.com

Velleman R & Orford J (1999) Risk & Resilience: Adults who were the Children of Problem Drinkers . London; Harwood, pp 294, plus xi.

Velleman, R. and Orford, J. [1993b] The adulthood adjustment of offspring of parents with drinking problems. British Journal of Psychiatry , 162 , 503-516.

Velleman, R. and Orford, J. [1993a] The importance of family discord in explaining childhood problems in the children of problem drinkers. Addiction Research , 1 , 39-57.

Velleman R (2004) Alcohol and drug problems: an overview of the impact on children and the implications for practice. In Gopfert, M., Webster, J. and Seeman, M. (Eds.) Seriously Disturbed and Mentally Ill Parents and their Children, 2 nd Edition . Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, Chapter 13, pp 181 – 198, in press.

Velleman R (2004) Substance misuse: impact on children and implications for practice.

The Clinician , in press.

Orford J, Krishnan M & Velleman R (2003) Young adult offspring of parents with drinking problems: a study of childhood family cohesion using simple family diagrams. Journal of Substance Use , 8, 139-149.

Velleman R (2002) The Children of Problem Drinking Parents: An Executive Summary. Executive Summary series; Centre for Research on Drugs & Health Behaviour , Executive Summary 70 , 1 - 5. Published on line:

Velleman R (2001) Counselling For Alcohol Problems , 2 nd Edition. London; Sage (Counselling in Practice Series).

Orford J et al. (2004) A comparative study of the families of people with alcohol and drug problems: Mexico, Australia and England. London; Harwood Academic Press, in press.

Velleman R, Copello A & Maslin J (1998) Living with Drink: Women who live with problem drinkers . London; Longmans, pp 228, plus xv.

Orford, J., Natera, G., Davies, J., Nava, A., Mora, J., Rigby, K., Bradbury, C., Copello, A. & Velleman, R . [1998a] Stresses and strains for family members living with drinking or drug problems in England and Mexico. Salud Mental , 21 , 1-13.

Orford, J., Natera, G., Davies, J., Nava, A., Mora, J., Rigby, K., Bradbury, C., Copello, A. and Velleman, R. [1998b] Tolerate, engage or withdraw: a study of the structure of family coping in England and Mexico. Addiction , 93 (12) , 1799-1813.

Orford, J., Natera, G., Davies, J., Nava, A., Mora, J., Rigby, K., Bradbury, C., Copello, A. and Velleman, R. [1999b] Social support in coping with alcohol and drug problems at home: findings from Mexican and English families. Addiction Research , 6 , 395-420.

Orford, J., Natera, G., Velleman, R ., Copello, A., Bowie, N., Bradbury, C., Davies, J., Mora, J., Nava, A., Rigby, K., and Tiburcio, M. [ 2001] Ways of coping and the health of relatives facing drug and alcohol problems in Mexico and England. Addiction , 96 , 761-774.

Copello, A., Orford, J., Velleman, R., Templeton, L. and Krishnan, M. [2000b] Methods for reducing alcohol and drug related family harm in non-specialist settings. Journal of Mental Health , 9 , 329-343.

Copello, A., Templeton, L., Krishnan, M., Orford, J. and Velleman, R. [2000c] A treatment package to improve primary care services for the relatives of people with alcohol and drug problems: feasibility and preliminary evaluation. Addiction Research , 8, 471-484.

Other useful references include:

Brisby, T., Baker, S. & Hedderwick, T. (1997) Under the Influence:Coping with Parents who Drink too much – a Report on the Needs of Children of Problem Drinking Parents. London, Alcohol Concern.

Callingham, M (1999) The ACOA Fact-Finder. Addiction Today, Nov/Dec.

Cleaver, H., Unell, I. & Aldgate, J. (1997) Children's Needs – Parenting Capacity: the impact of parental mental illness, problem alcohol and drug use, and domestic violence on children's development . London; The Stationary Office.

Forrester, D. & Harwin, J. (2002) Picking up the Pieces. Community Care 12-18 December 2002, p36-37.

Harwin, J & Forrester, D (2002) Parental Substance Misuse and Child Welfar: A Study of Social Work with Families in which Parents Misuse Drugs or Alcohol, First Stage Report to the Nuffield Foundation.

Housten, Kork & MacLeod (1997) Beyond the Limit: children who live with parental alcohol misuse. Childline.

Robinson, W. & Hassell, J. (2000) Alcohol Problems and the Family: From Stigma to Solution. ARP and NSPCC.

Tunnard, J. (2002) research in practice: Parental problems drinking and its impact on children. research in practice.

Kroll B, Taylor A. Parental Substance Misuse and Child Welfare. London: Jessica Kingsley; 2003.

Gaskell Publications (Royal College of Psychiatrists) have recently produced a publication (Communicating with Vulnerable Children) and video (Being Seen and Heard) that provide guidance on communicating with vulnerable children, and working with the needs of children of parents with mental illness. Whilst not specifically related to children of parents with alcohol problems, there is much that might be of use to professionals across Europe. For further details contact the Royal College of Psychiatrists or the Department of Health.

Resilience

Gilligan R. Promoting Resilience: A resource guide on working with children in the care system. London: BAAF; 2003. ISBN 1873868928.

Newman T. Promoting Resilience: A review of effective strategies for child care services. Centre for Evidence-based Social Services, Exeter, England & Barnados; 2002. ISBN 0953570940.

Domestic Violence

Women's Aid have produced a number of publications on the subject of the effects of domestic violence on children in the family (for further details contact Women's Aid on +44 117 9444411 or visit the website), including:

Saunders H & Humphreys C. Safe and Sound: A resource Manual for working with children who have experienced domestic violence.

Mullender A & Morley R. Children living with Domestic Violence.

Saunders H. Failure to protect.